Could a Pyrenean principality be a blueprint for an independent Catalonia?
A free and sovereign nation-state, where Catalan is the official language and the euro is the currency.
Whilst that may be a dream for many people across Catalonia – it is the reality for the 80,000 citizens of the principality of Andorra.
Could the tiny mountain nation be a model for a future Catalonia if they region were to break free from Spain?
Andorra is sandwiched between France and Spain, unique in that it is the only country governed by a co-monarchy. One head of state is the president of France and the other is the Bishop of Urgell (a town in Spain just to the south of Andorra).
The heads of state act in concert with the elected government. Winter skiing and summer hiking provide a substantial tourist income.
Andorra has a lot of cultural affinity with Catalonia through music, literature, and dance.
A breakaway Catalonia would have several other similarities.
Like Andorra, it would not be in the European Union, it would use the euro, and, of course, it would be a Catalan-speaking country.
But there are no guarantees that Andorrans would rush to embrace their separatist brethren across the mountains.
They might very well like to see another Catalan-speaking nation.
But Andorra could find itself having to choose between being the first country to recognise an independent Catalonia or preferring the stability of the wider region and hoping that the integrity of Spain is preserved.
There is also the example of the little-known enclave of Llivia.
A part of Spain surrounded by France, Llivia is a relic of the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees, when Spain ceded a group of villages to France.
But rather than a village, Llivia had been designated a town, and so it remained part of Spain. As every village to the north, south, east and west integrated into France, Llivia was left as an inland island of Spain.
In truth, it is more an island of Catalonia.
The Catalan estelada flag flies from the balconies, Catalan is spoken and it is part of the Catalan province of Gerona. Llivia also voted overwhelmingly in favour of independence in the banned referendum on 1 October.
The enclave offers an intriguing viewpoint of a part of Spain that is already physically separate from the mother country.
And Andorra, too, provides a fascinating and unique example of a Catalanaphone nation-state.
For pro-independence Catalans who have been suffering from nightmares over the last week after their leader fled to Belgium and Spain withdrew some of Catalonia’s devolved powers, they could perhaps settle on a more pleasant dream if they turn their gaze northwards to the Pyrenees and the thoughts of what the future could yet bring.